| Apple: Crab-Aple,
Wild Apple. Malus communis.
Parts Used. The
fruit and the bark
Temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere
Apple is a fruit of the temperate
zones and only reaches perfection in their cooler regions. It is a
long descent in the Swiss lake-dwellings small apples have been found,
charred, still showing the seed-valves and the grain of the flesh. It
its wild state in most countries of Europe and also in the region of
Caucasus: in Norway,
it is found in the lowlands as far north as Drontheim
Wild Apple (Pyrus
malus), is native to Britain
and is the wild ancestor of
all the cultivated varieties of apple trees. It was the stock on which
choice varieties when brought from Europe, mostly from France.
of some sort were abundant before the Norman Conquest and were probably
introduced into Britain
by the Romans. Twenty-two varieties were mentioned by Pliny: there are
2,000 kinds cultivated. In the Old Saxon manuscripts there are numerous
mentions of apples and cider.
Various analyses show that the Apple contains from 80
to 85 per cent. of water, about 5 per cent. of proteid or nitrogenous
from 10 to 15 per cent. of carbonaceous matter, including starch and
from i to 1-5 per cent. of acids and salts. The sugar content of a
varies from 6 to 10 per cent., according to the variety. In spite of
the large proportion of water, the fresh
Apple is rich in vitamins, and is classed among
the most valuable of the anti-scorbutic fruits for relieving scurvy.
contain a varying amount of the organic acids, malic acid and gallic
acid, and an
abundance of salts of both potash and soda, as well as salts of lime,
and iron. It has been
calculated that in 100 grams of dried apples, there are contained 1-7
of iron in sweet varieties and 2-1 milligrams in sour varieties. It has
been proved by analysis that the Apple contains a larger quantity of
than any other vegetable or fruit.
The chief dietetic
value of apples lies in the malic and
tartaric acids. These
acids are of signal benefit to persons of sedentary habits, who are
liable to liver
derangements, and they neutralize the acid products of gout and
apple a day keeps the doctor away' is a respectable old rhyme that has
reason in it.
The acids of the
Apple not only make the fruit itself digestible, but even make it
digesting other foods. Popular instinct long ago led to the association
sauce with such rich foods as pork and goose, and the old English fancy
eating apple pie with cheese, an obsolete taste nowadays, (Still common
Lancashire) is another example of instinctive inclination, which
It is stated on medical authority (1931) that in countries where
unsweetened cider is used as a common beverage, stone or calculus is
and a series of inquiries made of doctors in Normandy,
where cider is the principal
drink, brought to light the fact that not a single case of stone had
with during forty years.